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Different types of glass (in alphabetical order)

ancient glass

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anna green / anna yellow

Better known with their german names Annagrün and Annagelb. These types of transparent colored glass were invented by the Riedel firm around 1830. Franz Anton Riedel then was the director of the firm and named the new colors after his daughter Anna. They both hold a significant amount of uranium which gives the glass its flashing color.

bubble glass

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cameo glass

John Northwood's remake of the famous Portland Vase

John Northwood's remake
of the famous Portland
Vase

Cased form of glass usually with a white opaque layer over a colored layer. The outer layer is cut or etched away to leave a translucent white relief design in contrast against the color of the base layer. The technique was already used in ancient Alexandria and Italy but was revived in 19th century England by John Northwood who made a reproduction of a famous ancient cameo vase, known as the Portland Vase.

At then end of the 19th century the demand for cameo glass increased rapidly and british glass makers turned to the production of smaller pieces with thinner outer layers, also known as commercial cameo. Although cameo glass was mostly made in England, some famous cameo examples from european mainland include the art nouveau Gallé vases and the bohemian Mary Gregory glass.

chrysoprase

An opaque apple-green type of glass. This glass contains uranium and was invented by Joseph Riedel.

cloud glass

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colored glass

  • cranberry glass
  • cobalt blue glass

cristallo

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flint glass

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ice glass

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lead crystal

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lythyalin glass

Opaque or translucent type of glass which is used to imitate (semi)precious stones. It was invented by Friedrich Egermann around 1830-1840. He experimented with various techniques in order to obtain the desired effect. He started with hyalith and opaque blue glass, which he later replaced with uncolored glass cased with ruby and transparent green glass.

mary gregory glass

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milk glass

Type of opaque glass with a white or milky appearance. Next to white, milk glass can be found in any type of (soft) color. Light blue (opal), pink and lemon yellow are probably the most common colors used for milk glass.

Milk glass was first made in Venice in the 15th century. It is created by adding tin oxide to the base glass ingredients. Adding this compound results in a chemical reaction which turns the glass into a whitish substance. The glass keeps its reflective properties, distinguishing it from porcelain, but becomes fully opaque.

opaline glass

Opaline glass is a translucent milky-white glass which can be coloured pink, mauve, turquoise, green or in several other delicate shades by the use of metal oxides. The glass has a high lead content which defines it as "demi-crystal" or semi-crystal. The process of making opaline glass is very similar to that of milk glass, although opaline glass is (usually) slightly transparent when held up against the light, as opposed to milkglass which is fully opaque.

Opaline glass was very popular in Europe during the 19th century. Early opaline items usually originate from french glass artists from around 1800-1830. Bohemian artists quickly followed and added strong colors, polygonal shapes and often decorated their opaline items with gilt, silver and enamels. Even in England, famous for its clear crystal glass, glass makers started to use opaline glass from around 1850.

pâte de cristal

Glassware similar to pate-de-verre, but made of powdered glass of finer quality resulting in greater translucency and resonance.

pâte de verre

Pâte-de-verre literally means glass paste, a material produced by grinding glass to a powder and adding a fluxing medium to assist in the melting. Other glass powders are added to further colorize the glass object.

The process of making pate-de-verre was known in ancient Egypt and was revived by the frenchman Henri Cros at the end of the 19th century. Other french glass makers that became famous for their pate-de-verre objects are Gabriel Argy-Rousseau, Daum and Gallé.

pâte d'émail

A form of pâte de verre with the appearance of unglazed porcelain.

potash glass

Potash glass is characteristic of northern and interior Europe, where it is made from local sands and potash derived from wood ash and burnt inland vegetation. A little salt and small amounts of manganese are added to make the glass clear, but potash glass is less clear than soda glass. Most early portash glass is green because of iron impurities in the materials.

smoked glass

Dark colored glass that has a smoky appearance. The glass is slightly transparent and has a greyish or brownish color.

vetro pulegoso

This literally means bubbled glass, a type of ornamental opaque glass developed by Venini at Murano around 1928. It is characterised by the inclusion of many irregularly spaced air bubbles in the glass.

waldglas

Also known as forest glass. Waldglas is potash glass colored green by using iron impurities in the sand or adding iron oxide (FeO). Most waldglas was made from the 13th to the 18th century in the forest rich areas of southern Germany and west Bohemia. Waldglas is often slightly opaque and ranges from bright, dark green to a ligther brownish green. Very common waldglas items are the wine bottles and rummers made in 15th-17th century Germany.